Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Bail Bonds Essays - Criminal Law, Legal Professions, Bail

Bail Bonds Criminal Law term paper 17OCT00 Bail Bonds The principle of bail is basic to our system of justice and its practice as old as English law itself. When the administration of criminal justice was in its infancy, arrest for serious crime meant imprisonment without preliminary hearing and long periods of time could occur between apprehension and the arrival of the King's Justices to hold court. It was therefore a matter of utmost importance to a person under arrest to be able to obtain a provisional release from custody until his case was called. This was also the desideratum of the medieval sheriff, the representative of the Crown in criminal matters, who wore many hats including that of bailing officer. He preferred the conditional release of persons under arrest to their imprisonment for several reasons: it was less costly and troublesome; the jails were easy to breach and under then existing law the Jailer was hanged if a prisoner escaped; the jails were dangerous to health, and as there was no provision for adequate food, many prisoners perished before trial was held Purpose Of Bail - 2Influenced by factors such as these, the sheriff was inclined to discharge himself of responsibility for persons awaiting trial by handing them into the personal custody of their friends and relatives. Indeed, in its strict sense, the word bail is used to describe the person who agrees to act assuredly for the accused on his release from jail and becomes responsible for his later appearance in court at the time designated. As surety, the bail was liable under the law for any default in the accused's appearance. Purpose Of Bail - 3Between the 13th and 15thcenturies the sheriff's power to admit to bail was gradually vested, by a series of statutes, in the justices of the peace. In the case of a person committed for felony, the justices of the peace had the authority to require, if they thought fit, his remaining in jail until the trial took place, but, on the other hand, a person committed for a misdemeanor case could, at common law, insist on being released on bail if he found sufficient sureties. Writing in the mid-1700's, Blackstone described the arrest-bail procedure his day in the following passage: When a delinquent is arrested...he ought regularly to be carried before a justice of the peace...If upon...inquiry it manifestly appears that either no such crime was committed or that the suspicion entertained of the prisoner as wholly groundless, in such cases only it is lawful totally to discharge him. Otherwise he must be committed to prison or give bail; that is, put in his securities for his appearance to answer the charge against him. This commitment, therefore, being only for safe custody, wherever bail will answer the same intention it ought to be taken...Bail is...a delivery or bailment of a person to his sureties, upon their giving (together with himself) sufficien t security for his appearance; he being supposed to continue in their friendly custody, instead of going to goal. The notion of bail pending trial was not changed over the centuries. For instance, Mr. Justice Robert H. Jackson of the Supreme Court in discussing its purpose said, The practice of admission to bail, as it evolved in Anglo-American law, is not a device for keeping persons in jail upon mere accusation until it is found convenient to give them a trial. On the contrary, the spirit of the procedure is to enable them to stay out of jail until a trial has found them guilty. Without this conditional privilege, even those wrongfully accused are punished by a period of imprisonment while awaiting trial and are handicapped in consulting counsel, searching for evidence and witnesses, and preparing a defense, Admission to bail always involves a risk that the accused will take flight. That is a calculated risk which the law takes as the price of our system of justice The possibility that the accused might flee or hide must, of course, be squared with the traditional right to freedom pending trial. In order to reconcile these conflicting interests, therefore, his release on bail is conditioned upon his giving reasonable assurance in one form or another that he will appear at a certain time

Friday, March 6, 2020

Disclosing Medical Errors, How Soon The Patient And Family Member

Disclosing Medical Errors, How Soon The Patient And Family Member Disclosing Medical Errors, How Soon The Patient And Family Member Should Be Informed Who Should – Article Example Disclosing Medical Errors Insert Insert Disclosing medical Errors A medical error is a failure or inability of a planned course of action to be addressed as intended or using the wrong plan to accomplish the aim, but devoid of intentional or reckless actions that may harm the patients (NCC MERP, n.d). This paper discusses medical errors, who should be informed and how soon the patient and family members should be informed. Experts have highly encouraged professional disclosure of medical errors whenever they occur. Globally it is said that error is human, but it raises the question whether the clichà © covers such critical group of professionals or whether the errors that have been made so far are insignificant for other physicians to learn from them. Currently, there is no consensus on modalities and processes of reporting near misses. Patients require information on medical errors from an ethical standpoint so as to make informed decisions about subsequent treatments (Gallagher, 2 007, pp. 2713-2719). The greatest bottleneck to free disclosure of medical errors is the fear of increasing malpractice claims on the medical fraternity as well as vulnerability to medico-legal action. Disclosing such errors to patients themselves by the physicians may be perceived as the most straight forward affair in the making but is rather a challenging task. It raises fears of what one would expect in the following times (Wagner, 2012, pp. 63-69). The fear of going through such ordeal might make one feel less obliged to seek medical attention, and the "I’d rather not be told" sentiment from patients reveals less reacceptance of such errors. Many medical scholars have thus advocated for disclosure of such errors to family and not patients as this might predispose patients to sadness, anxiety, depression and trauma. The desired recuperation for patients might be delayed. Family members, therefore, encourage knowledge of what transpired, the consequences of an error on th eir health, the reasons for it happening, mitigation of such malfunctions, and the proper measures for the prevention of such errors in the future. Such reporting should also be timely as soon as such error is committed and noted as a possible point of professional malfunction by the physician. The family members are required to take the necessary course of action since they hold responsibility and reaction in trust of the patient (Garbutt, 2007, pp. 179-185).ReferencesGallagher, T. H., Studdert, D., & Levinson, W. (2007). Disclosing Harmful Medical Errors To Patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 356(26), 2713-2719. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra070568Garbutt, J., Fraser, V., Dunagan, W. C., Hazel, E., Marcuse, E. K., Krauss, M. J., et al. (2007). Reporting and Disclosing Medical Errors: Pediatricians Attitudes and Behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(2), 179-185. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10 .1001/archpedi.161.2.179NCC MERP About Medication Errors. (n.d.). NCC MERP About Medication Errors. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from nccmerp.org/aboutMedErrors.htmlWagner, L. M., Harkness, K., Hà ©bert, P. C., & Gallagher, T. H. (2012). NursesÊ ¼ Perceptions of Error Reporting and Disclosure in Nursing Homes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 27(1), 63-69. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NCQ.0b013e318232c0bc

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Financial crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Financial crisis - Essay Example The global north was after this period walking on a financial tight rope. With the resource utilization reaching the maximum limits compounded further by a relatively high wage rate, most enterprises were feeling the pinch in the reduction of their rates of return. There are also indications that the credit crisis began in the developing nations that had began to experience financial turbulence in the early years before it eventually impacted the giant economies like the United States. With respect to these revelations and more, this paper therefore examines the causes of the credit crisis that affected the world and which its effects are yet to be fully mitigated. This essay will closely look at the major influencing factors in the global economy and that of the United States that led to the credit crisis that was experienced in the year 2004. As a precursor, the two major reasons for this crisis were internal policy framework and external influence as discussed below. Deregulation: Shadow Banking and Mortgage Securitization The main internal factor was that of the policy instruments by the government that led to further instability in the financial sector of the economy that was already unhealthy. The period before the crisis was characterized by a highly capitalist tendency that favored lack of regulation in the financial sector. Blundell-Wignall, Atkinson and Lee (3), state that by the year 2004 there were four key crisis-causing factors that came into perspective. First, the then president’s policy of making mortgages cheaper to low-income household. Secondly, the increased restriction of the sole mortgaging authority that made banks venture more into the sector and thereby increasing low value lending. Third was the publication of the Basel II accord that encouraged banks to get involved in other non-trading activities. Finally, the investment banks were given more freedom through ‘consolidated entities program’. In effect, this led to instability of economies mostly in the northern parts of the globe that depended highly on export surpluses. This created some sort of instability as Kapadia and Jayadev (35) indicate. They further state that the creation of a benchmark of currency and the isolation of the United States’ consumption sector as the last in consideration when exporting resulted into instability in the world economy. The effects of deregulation were mostly felt in the banking sector. First, the impact of disallowing the regulations that stated that demand deposits accrued interests. Secondly, the mortgage interests with relation to residential properties were lowered creating a boom in the housing sector through increased mortgage lending. Lastly, the deposit taking institutions were allowed access to the Federal Reserve through a credit window that in turn allowed non-banking institutions into the financial market that was already unstable. It was therefore inevitable that deregulation was boun d to create ‘indiscipline’ in the financial sector and that was the case. For instance, lack of proper monitoring of the banking institutions was creating an environment prone to unscrupulous deals that amounted to lose invested funds that created a recipe for future collapse of the whole lending system. Moreover, the mortgage sector was also affected

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

LP6- Juvenile Justice Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

LP6- Juvenile Justice - Assignment Example However, some adverse effects may vary depending on the quantity consumed, the rate of body metabolism, and individual mood. Some of the most commonly abused drugs include marijuana, cocaine, heroin and alcohol (Bruce and Tracey 2-6). Marijuana is dry shredded leaves ranging from brown to green mixture of flowers stem and leaves of a plant termed as cannabis sativa. This type of drug in its resinous form is called hashish. Marijuana contains a chemical component known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), this chemical subjects the body it into euphoric state (feeling high). According to center of diseases and control (CDC), marijuana contains over 70% cancer causing substances compared to cigarettes and persistence use often lead to inflammation on the respiratory system. Several studies have also indicated that this drug causes abnormalities of the brain giving a leeway to diseases such as psychosis. In male, marijuana changes the structure of the formation of sperm cell and this may lead to infertility and it interferes with the menstrual cycle in women. The drug also causes abnormal cell division leading to premature births and is one of the leading causes of leukemia amongst newborn children. In conclusion, cannabi s increases the rate of heartbeat, interferes with the physical coordination and causes dizziness (Diane and Samantha 100). Cocaine falls amongst the addictive stimulant drugs generated from a coca plant mostly grown in South America. This drug in its processed form is known as crack. Cocaine drug is inhaled through the nostril or can be directly injected into the blood stream in form of solution. This drug increases the rate of heartbeat, nausea and enhances abnormal breathing patterns (Diane and Samantha 100). Even though cocaine is mainly associated with short term effects, its abusers often suffer from damaged nose cartilage thus leading to paranoia and abnormal breathing

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The role of testimonial advertising in Fmcg sector

The role of testimonial advertising in Fmcg sector In todays intensely competitive, rapidly changing and highly complex environment characterize by diminishing customer loyalty, the need to be market -focused and customer centric is more critical and is gaining importance than any other time in past. Testimonial advertising is usually very effective and is frequently used. It is basically a promotional  method  in which one or more  testimonials  from satisfied  customers  are used. The satisfied customers may be well know or famous personality or may be a common customer. The statement of men and women who are well and favourably known in society tend to influence others in the community to buy a particular product or article which others have used successfully. Hence, the main purpose of the study is to understand the effect of this type of adverstising on FMCG industry. 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The study will help to understand the impact and the importance of testimonial advertising as a marketing tool in FMCG sector. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 What is Advertising Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action. It is the business which draws the attention of public to goods and services. The product name is generally included in advertising. It also explains how that product could prove to be beneficial to the consumer. Advertising helps in persuading a target market to purchase or to consume a particular brand. It serves to communicate an idea to a large number of people. It attempts to convince a group a people to take some certain action. It is a type of communication who aims at informing potential customers about products and services. Commercial advertisers main aim is to increase the consumption of their  products and/or services. This can be done through branding. Branding includes the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand. Non-commercial advertisers spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service. These non commercial advertisers may include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies.   With the rise of mass production , modern advertising came into existence. Mass media  can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. To deliver the different and various types of messages, different types of media can be used. Traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor; or  new media  like a websites and text messages can be used. 2.2 Advertising and its various modes Advertising is one of the important aspects which need to be considered in business. Advertising decides how much a product or service will be successful. Different mediums can be used for advertising purposes. Advertising promotes the product and services of a company and drive its sales. It also builds brand identity and also communicates changes of new product /services to the customers. Advertising has become an essential element. The reasons for advertising are ; New product introduced Sales increases Change in product line. Brand builing. There are various media which can be used for advertising based on the several reasons. Several b ranches of advertising can be made based on these criterias. The various categories or types of advertising are mentioned below: 2.2.1 Print Advertising The print advertising includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers etc. The print media have always been a famous and popular way of advertising. It is the most convenient and the most commonly used way of advertising. Depending upon the area occupied by the advertisement and also the position of the advertisement like front page/ middle page etc, these newspapers and magazines sell the advertising space. It is also affected by the readership of the publications. Like for example the cost of giving an advertisement in a new and comparatively less popular newspaper will be less than the one which is more popular and has more readerships. The type of supplement also affects the price of the print ads. The advertisement in the glossy supplement costs much higher than normal paper. The problem of ads in newspapers and magazines is that they can only attract the readers eyes. It is not visible to a person who is not a reader. This problem can be solved by considering several factors: Use right-hand pages for newspaper adverts. The colour also plays an important role. The layout and the text are also very important parts of newspaper adverts. The layout may take the readers look at the main information, and the text is just to inform interested people. Print advertising is equally effective in creating an impact on the masses. But another problem that can arise is that it can address only the educated people. Even though there is a large section of people who indulge in reading newspapers or even simply browsing through the headlines and in the mean time they will take a look at the advertisement which will serve the purpose indeed.   2.2.2 Outdoor Advertising Another popular way of advertising is outdoor ads. It uses several different tools and techniques to attract the customers outdoor. The various types of outdoor advertising can be billboards, kiosks and several events organised by a company. The billboard advertising is the popular of all and grabs the maximum attention of the passers by. The kiosks promote the companys products. The companys can organize various events for publicising their product. 2.2.3 Broadcast advertising Broadcast advertising includes television, radio and the internet. Anything that can be broadcasted using digital means to a large mass comes under broadcast advertising. It is a very popular advertising medium. Television advertising has been popular since the time television came into existence. The duration and the time of the ads decides the cost of the ads. It helps when you want to give a very detailed information of the product. They have proved to have more stonger impact as compared to the others. The radio lost its importance to the new age media but it still remains the choice of the small sc ale advertisers. 2.2.4 Celebrity advertising The most effective way of influencing people is celebrity advertising Although a larger part of the audience has got immune to the varied claims made in a majority of advertisements, there is still a large part of costomers that still relies upon celebrities for advertising their products. 2.2.5 Public Service Advertising The advertising for social cause is called public service advertising. Public service advertising is a technique that uses ads to effectively communicate to the general public and make them aware about matters like illiteracy, poverty, AIDS, energy conservation deforestation etc. 2.3 Importance of advertising The main aim of any business is to maximize its sales resulting into a lot of revenue and profits for the company. Advertising helps in increasing the sales of any business. The second importance is that the product of a specific brand ends up becoming a household name. For example Coke or coca-cola is a house hold brand name. Same is the case of Pepsi. Such popular brand names have huge customer base that is loyal to the brand and continues to purchase the product for a prolonged time period. The craving to purchase and own a particular commodity only arises if people are aware about its existence. This can only happen if the product is advertised properly. 2.3.1 Importance of advertising in marketing Advertising helps in gaining a good loyal customer base. It not only markets the brand but also conveys the financial details about the brand to the customer. The details of pricing often tend to generate an interest in a persons mind. Discount offers often prove to be successful in advertising. Offers like buy 1 get 1 free prove to be quite instrumental for clearance sales etc and result into a spurt of sales. Hence, advertising plays a quite comprehensive role in marketing policies. 2.3.2 Importance of advertising in business Advertising not only just optimizes sales and product promotion but also creates goodwill of the specific brand which is an important asset. A very well known brand not only creates a good customer base but also a good ground to introduce new products under the same banner. The probability of people to buy the new product out of curiosity is very high. Once a good reputation is gained, it helps the business throughout the life time. The effect of one cause leads to the other. Advertising leads to awareness. When people are aware of the product they tend to pay attention to its newer advertisements and the probability that the person will buy the product will increase. Hence, we can say that advertising helps business gain loyal customers as well as a good platform in the entire market.   2.4 IMC Integrated Marketing Communications  (IMC) coordinates and integrates all marketing tools like avenues, functions and sources within a company into a seamless program that maximizes the impact on consumers and other end users at a minimal cost. Marketing efforts incorporate marketing mix. The marketing mix consists of the four Ps of marketing viz product, place, price, promotion. Promotion activities can be done in a variety of ways like sales promotion, personal selling activities etc. It also includes internet marketing, direct marketing, database marketing and public relations. There are various levels of integration such as the horizontal, vertical, external, internal and data integration. They all help to strengthen integrated communications. Horizontal Integration occurs across the marketing mix and across business functions. On the other hand, External Integration,, requires external partners such as advertising and PR agencies to work closely together to deliver a single solution. Integrated marketing communications includes online and offline marketing channels. By online marketing channels we mean e-marketing campaigns, programs, podcast, internet radio, internet tv etc. Whereas, billboards, television traditional radio mail order, traditional print etc come under offline marketing channels. IMC is a data driven approach whose main focus is to identify consumer insights and to develop a strategy with the right combination of channels to build a strong brand consumer relationship 2.4.1 Importance of IMC IMC requires a lot of efforts to ultimately deliver many benefits. It saves money, boosts the profits and sales of the company and creates a competitive advantage. It improves communications with the customer and helps them to move through the different stages of the buying process. This Relationship Marketing creates a strong bond of loyalty with the customers and helps in protecting them from inevitable competition. Retaining a customer for life proves to be a powerful competitive advantage. Because of its increased effectiveness, IMC helps in increasing profits.   IMC can boost sales by stretching messages across several communications tools to create more avenues for customers to become aware, aroused, and ultimately, to make a purchase. Finally, IMC helps in eliminating duplication in graphics and photography, which can be used in advertising, exhibitions and sales literature and thus saves money. 2.5 Testimonial advertising Testimonial advertising can be defined as a promotional  method  in which one or more  testimonials  from satisfied  customers  are used. It is a very effective form of advertising. It involves statement of men and women who are well and favourably known in the society to influence other people to buy the particular product. This is usually done by speaking good and favourable things about the product to prove the handiness of the product in use. It can be done through any form of media like print, radio, television etc. However television proves to be most successful because it involves both audio and visual components. Seeing the person use the product makes us believe more than just reading or hearing about it. Very big companies use this type of advertising as a promotional method to increase their customer base and also their profits. A few examples to testimonial advertising which proved to be very successful in the recent past are- The lalitaji campaign used by Hindustan UniLiver, or the repositioning of lifebuoy, or the media strategy used by HLL for close-up, or the brand management strategy used by dabur for vatika, or horlicks by gsk, or the desh ka namak campaign for tata salt by HLL. 2.6 Importance of customer testimonials To achieve desired behavioural response, marketers use influential marketing methods like the word of mouth communications etc. Customer reviews and testimonials prove to be very powerful when it comes to advertising and especially in case of FMCG sector. They offer a sense of security in the minds of new customers and build credibility. The most challenging task is to get your customers provide you the review which you are expecting. A good review by the customer or a good testimonial is beneficial to the customer in many ways. 2.7 FMCG industry Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) goods are also known as consumer packaged goods. They range from soaps , detergents, household stuffs, accessories etc. The items are usually the ones which come in handy in regular basis.the consumption of these products is very high and is still increasing day by day. 2.7.1 What is FMCG FMCG products usually have a high turnover ratio. They are low to medium range products. It mainly deals with the marketing and distribution of consumer goods. They are required by the consumer on daily basis and hence leads to high sales. 2.7.2 Common FMCG products Some common FMCG product categories include food, glassware, paper , pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics, packaged food products, plastic goods, printing and stationery, household products, photography, drinks etc. And also soaps, shampoos, cells etc. 2.7.3 Major companies in FMCG Hindustan Unilever Ltd ITC Dabur India Nestle India Cadbury India Procter and gamble Marico Industries Britannia CHAPTER 3 DATA COLLECTION This report will be totally focusing on the FMCG companies preferences towards testimonial advertising and the effect and influence of testimonial advertising on the FMCG sector. As the advertising techniques are used for the marketing of the product so the research will be done in the area of marketing. 3.1 Data sources One of the major challenges in any research is the data collection. It is not only important to collect data but also to know how to use it. There can be two types of data which can be used in any survey Primary data Secondary data Primary data is the information collected from original sources for the first time. Primary data is usually specific, relevant and is current. Its main disadvantage is its high cost and the amout of time takes. Secondary data is information that already exits which was collected by somebody for other purposes and is now available to the researcher as a secondary source of information. It gives an overview of the market. Secondary data does not take as much time as primary data and involves less cost. Secondary data is usually collected from the documents like published articles and the Internet. But internet lacks reliability. For this report I have taken secondary data sources as a data collection method. 3.1.1 Secondary Data Sources A) Literature Review To understand the general concept of advertising and how testimonial advertising is used in FMCG sector B) Internet: to gather information regarding various types of companies in FMCG Sector. C) Newspaper: it is a good medium for disseminating information to millions of people. In Newspapers, one can see the advertisement of various FMCG products. CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS 4.1 SWOT analysis The SWOT-model ( strengths, weaknesses, opportunity, threats) gives the internal strength and weaknesses of the company It also reflects the external factors from the market . The SWOT analysis can be described as follows 4.1.1 Strengths Well known brands are present in FMCG sector. Distribution network is good Operational costs are low. 4.1.2 Weaknesses Scope of investing in technology is low. Duplication of products of well established brands. Export levels are low. 4.1.3 Opportunities High consumer goods spending Untapped market (rural). Domestic market is very large. Purchasing power of consumer is increasing. 4.1.4 Threats Import restrictions mite be removed from domestic brands 4.2 Case study 4.2.1 Lalitaji Hindustan unilever launched lalitaji in the year a 1959. She was used for the endorsement of surf. Soon after the launch of lalitaji, surf became a synonym of detergents and powders. It remained the largest selling detergent powder for long time. Then came the launch of Nirma by Karsanbhai patel. To respond to the low priced nirma, they came up with a memorable advertising strategy. It featured a middle class housewife Kavita Choudhary.soon the lalitaji could ne identified by the people even on the streets. Overnight it gained importance. She could be seen in almost every role. Like a daughter, wife, neighbour, daughter in-law, mother. It taught us the difference between sasti cheez ans asli cheez. HLLs main target was the middle class housewives. Lalitaji clearly portrayed a strong headed and strong willed character. An ironic twist occurred and soon the common lalitaji became larger than the brand itself. But later in 1980s Nirma also launced a similar figure called deepika ji. HLL later launced surf ultra with lalitaji. And then the famous ad dhoondh te reh jaoge came in the picture. Later in the 1990s HLL was backed by surf excel. The lalitaji was now a working modern women. May be a lawyer, journalist, or a business women. What was retained was her spotless white garb.the inevitable stains was reassured by those who looked at her shopping bag surf excel hai na. Lalitaji was gone but the brand clicked the segment et again. The campaign reflected the changing role of Indian women. Surf hence became generic and many people refer to detergent as surf. C:UserssonyDesktoplalitaji_surf ad.JPG Chapter 5 Conclusion 5.1 The future of FMCG FMCG is expected to grow to Rs 400,000-crore industry by 2020. The consumption pattern of people has evolved rapidly in the past few years. The consumers are curious to experience what they have not experienced till now. The quest for the new still continues. The needs are soon getting replaced by the wants. The FMCG sector witnessed robust year-on-year growth of approximately 11 per cent in the last decade, almost tripling in size from Rs 47,000 crore in 2000-01 to Rs 130,000 crore now. 5.2 Conclusion Since the FMCG sector is expected to grow several folds in the coming years, advertising in this sector will prove to be fruitful for any company. Sales are the lifeblood of any business. Without sales there would be no business. Therefore it is very important that if a business wants to succeed, it should have good sales. Advertising helps in increasing the sales of any product. Since testimonial advertising influences the people to a great extent and leaves an everlasting impression in the minds of the customer, it can prove to be a powerful tool for advertising. It is important to study the consumer behaviour and their choices especially in FMCG industry because there are several brands as options for the customer. Since the financial risk is very low in this segment the consumers do not mind switching from one brand to the other. Hence it is very important for the marketer to know the ways of marketing and advertising its products properly. Since, advertising forms such an important aspect of marketing, its study and understanding is very important. Testimonial advertising have also helped in contributing to the improvements of the advertising strategies to a great extent.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Midterm Reflection: Health Literacy Essay

When listening or reading to the news, it is hard to avoid a topic on the health care crisis. It seems that everyone has an opinion on what needs to be fixed, but there is one underlying factor in the system that could be a key player in the delivery of health care for the future. Health literacy has become an issue that is affecting every part of the system, and could be a path leading to improvements in the system (Nutbeam, 2000). After watching the health literacy video exposing various Americans with low health literacy, I was completely shocked. I had heard of health literacy before, but seeing this video was really eye-opening as to the extent that people cannot communicate with health care providers. I knew right away that this was a topic that I wanted to explore. When learning about health literacy, I found it important to note the similarities and differences in health literacy and literacy. Literacy can be defined as one’s ability to read, write, or understand written and spoken language in his or her native language. Health literacy is different to literacy, as it is one’s ability to understand the terms of health and apply that knowledge within the scope of health care (Mayer and Villaire, 2007). However, literacy plays an undeniable role in health literacy, in that those that are illiterate will have an even harder time when trying to understand health terms. While watching the movie about health literacy in class, I could not help but be disturbed when watching adults that had the literacy levels of middle school children (Kalmbach, 2003). It made me wonder how many people are illiterate in the country, and how this is playing a role in health care. The National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) offers extensive information on past studies done on adults for literacy. A study conducted in 2003 showed that thirty million adults (about fourteen percent) had literacy levels below basic, which includes simple, minimal skills. In addition, sixty-three million, or twenty-nine percent of adults, had a literacy level of â€Å"basic,† which means that simple, everyday skills are met, but nothing beyond that. Knowing this, it is clear that there is a problem in America with literacy in adults. With adults that cannot meet even intermediate literacy skills, that means that over 100 million adults are health illiterate because people that are illiterate tend to also be health illiterate (â€Å"National Assessment,† 2003). Some of these adults may have health care plans, and their lack of literacy may be preventing them from understanding those plans and understanding the services with which they are provided through those plans. Because there is correlation with literacy and socio-economic class, I believe that there needs to be more emphasis put on educating those that have not been properly educated (Mayer and Villaire, 2007). Healthy People 2020 has a great system for approaching this goal in terms of health literacy, but more promotion of this movement is critical (â€Å"Educational and Community-Based,† 2011). In the movie, Mr. Brown reads at the fourth-grade level. Due to this low literacy level, he says that he does not like going to the doctor because of the amount of paperwork he needs to fill out. Even being someone that can read at a proficient level, I can agree with Mr. Brown that filling out paperwork at a doctor’s office can be stressful. There are many abbreviations and words that relate to health care that I simply do not know. However, because of my literacy level, I am able to overcome some of these problems and figure out what the form is asking. It concerns me that people of a low literacy level such as Mr. Brown’s would not be able to do this problem-solving successfully (Kalmbach, 2003). There is no doubt that this can lead to medical miscommunications between the patient and the doctor in regards to billing, medical background information, and future diagnoses and prescriptions. These miscommunications can be costly for insurers, those paying out-of-pocket, and the physicians (Mayer and Villaire, 2007). As a college student, I still have much to learn about living independently without the help of my parents. After learning about health literacy, I feel that I need to educate myself and become more health literate. Because I am a biology major, and I am interested in science, I do try to communicate well and fully understand what my doctor is telling me, but I do not always ask all of the questions needed to improve my health literacy. For example, when I am prescribed a medication, I normally take it without knowing why I am taking that specific dosage, what it will do for me, what side-effects it may cause, etc. Those are questions that I, and others that go to a physician, should be asking. College students are in the years where they prepare for living on our own. Part of that preparation should be becoming more health literate in order to make the best decisions regarding health care options in the present and future. In a study of college students, 21. 7% of the students could not appropriately take a medication four times throughout one day, and 41. 4% would not figure out financing for primary care when taking family size and income into consideration. Since these are issues that may be in the near future for college students, this implies that something needs to be done to better educate students. Melinda Ickes and Randall Cottrell (2010) say that a possible solution to improving health literacy would be to offer consumer health courses. I believe that this could be an option, but there needs to be a great incentive, or it must be mandatory for students to take these courses; with the combination of a busy course load and students simply not knowing their health literacy levels, many students may not enroll. One growing issue with health literacy that I find extremely interesting is the effect that the Internet has played in health care over the past couple decades (Ickes and Cottrell, 2010). As more information about health care is available on the Internet, many people find it more convenient to self-diagnose themselves instead of making the trip to the doctor. I know that when I have a health problem, one of the first things that I do is look it up on a website such as WebMD. While some people, like myself, know that this is not sufficient information, others that are not as health literate may not understand that the most reliable source is a face-to-face interaction with a physician. When a doctor visit becomes necessary, doctors may then have the task of re-teaching the medical information if a person relied heavily on the wrong information from the Internet. This is not just a problem locally or nationally. The Internet is worldwide, so this problem of becoming Internet-dependent for health care may be affecting global health literacy and therefore the quality of global health care. Though those that do not have access to health insurance and cannot see a physician may find this to be easy access at the fingertips, proper health literacy is needed to interpret the information in a way that is safe (Lancellotti-Young and Suk, n. d. ). Because I want to be a genetic counselor, health literacy will definitely play a major role in my future practice. Genetic counselors are responsible for doing genetic tests, interpreting those tests, and communicating results with patients effectively. Having a good understanding of the health literacy of my patients will be critical when advising them to make safe decisions for their health and the health of their future children. Especially in regard to sex education and prevention, health literacy is a problem that needs to be addressed in a major way. With more understanding of the benefits and results of genetic testing and prenatal care, patients may be able to make adjustments related to health and financing health care (â€Å"Health Literacy,† 2010). In my practice, I would highly value health literacy and make an effort to incorporate health literacy education into my practice as much as possible. Health literacy is a growing topic in health care, as it should be. Someone that can effectively communicate with a physician well may be saving time and money for themselves, the physician, and the insurance provider. However, many adults that are responsible for their own health care are not health-literate on a proficient level. While current news has put emphasis on many aspects of health care such as financing and access, health literacy should be emphasized more, especially because it could potentially benefit those financing and access issues (Nutbeam 2000). Watching the health literacy video gave me a perspective on health care that I did not have before. Not only did I begin to learn of this issue on a national level, but I realized that I need to educate myself so that I can become more health literate to be a better contributor to the health care system. Health literacy follows each person that interacts with the health care system, whether he or she is a receiver or provider of that care. Resources Educational and Community-Based Programs. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. healthypeople. gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview. aspx? topicid=11 Health Literacy. (2010). Genetic Counseling Cultural Competence Toolkit. Retrieved October 27, 2011, from http://www. geneticcounselingtoolkit. com/cases/resources_referral/rrf7. htm Ickes, M. J. , & Cottrell, R. (2010). Health literacy in college students. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 491-498. Kalmbach, Lewis (Producer). (2003). Health Literacy Video [Motion Picture]. United States: Kalmbach Advertising. Lancellotti-Young, C. , & Suk, D. (n. d. ). Online access to health information: The Internet’s impact on the patient-physician relationship. Internet and Social Change. Retrieved October 27, 2011, from.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Managerial Ethics

â€Å"Ethics is the code of moral values and principles that governs the behaviors of a person with respect to what is right or wrong (Burke)†. Ethics sets standards on what is good or bad in a person's behavior or decisions making. In addition it deals with internal values that are a part of the company's culture and their employees. An ethical issue is found in a case that the actions of a person or an organization may harm others. â€Å"Managerial ethics help to guide decision making and the organization of internal and external behavior. Ethical problems usually arise from a conflict between an individual or group and the company, division or department as a whole. Companies have created a set of values and standards that are recognized by managers and consistently referenced during the work day have created an ethical platform that can operate managers and make decisions. Training managers on the specifics of managerial ethics by role play, case study and group discussion has paved the way for ethical behaveor. † (Burke) Managers in most organizations seek to encourage ethical practices to gain whatever commercial advantage there may be in having potential consumers and employees regard the company as ethical, also to ensure ethical behavior in the company. Distributing, creating, and continually improving a company's code of ethics is a one-step manager can take to create an ethical workplace. Another step managers can take is to provide the work force with appropriate training. Many companies implement training programs designed at encouraging ethical practices within their organizations. (Marion, 2001) Managerial ethics are a set of standards that dictate the behavior of active manager within the workplace. It helps to guide decision making and organize the future path of the organization. People need to increase their awareness about ethics. Therefore, this paper will illustrate the history and the importance of ethics in the workplace environment. It will also provide good example of ethical and unethical behaviors in the place of work. History of ethics: The history of ‘’business ethics ‘’ has a lot of definition and it depends on how people define it. The history of ethics was known in 1970s and it was known in japan and Europe in 1980s. Business ethics is different in each country, for example the business ethics in China is way different from the business ethics in the United Kingdom. The history of business ethics will have three standards because it used in at least three different stands. First stand of the history is ‘‘the term ‘’ business ethics ‘’ came into common use in the 1970 in United State. ’’ (George, 1998). It was found in the academy, business meetings, and academic writing, research and teaching. Second stand of the history is when business ethics becomes more general usage in media and public discourse, and then they had to call it ‘’ethics in business. ’’ And it is the most widespread stand in general public, news reporters and many business companies use this term. Another stand of the history is when the history is broader; it goes back to the principal of business and taken in a broad sense, for example; commercial exchanges and later meaning economic system. Movement within business or movement to building ethics into structure in a form of ethics code, ethics training is the third stand of the history of ethics. Moreover, the meaning of business ethics is different from each country. According to Richard T. De George ‘’ Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become something that corporations can no longer ignore and still maintain a positive public image. ’’. It plays in most of European countries, where the government has a huge role than United States, for example, a lot of labor force that were managed in United states were legislated in United Kingdom. Also, Agreeing to Richard T. De George,† CSR is a somewhat nebulous concept and it is often adopted by companies in response to external criticism, without any overarching framework or set of values‘’. Ethics of CSR is recognized in all cases by ethical norms not by the demand of interest groups. The globalization of business ethics has been in the worldwide of all the three stand of business ethics. The globalization of business ethics is still in tis incapability. They have a little attention of global issue; lobal warming is an example of attention they have. TOYOTA ethics in Japan’s 1)Leave employee exhausted. 2)They think the more working hour daily will give more productivity and quality to the product. 3)Work late at night without break time. 4)No meals available in the company. Toyota in japan have a strict rules of ethics that employee must do it if they joins the Company. However, Toyota ethics in other countries is different from japan due to the change in culture, environment and what people believe in. Religion perspective on business ethics The reason why religion is the most important factor in a person’s perspective of business ethics is because there are several different views of religious. For example: Muslims use the Holy Quran and the teaching of Prophet Mohammed to inform people their views on business ethics, while Christianity uses the Ten Commandments and the teaching of Christ to explain their ethics in business. The Jewish uses the Torah. In Islam, responsibility, freedom and honesty are the three main concepts of ethics. In addition of these three main concepts, a Muslim person should also have to be fair and productive. They believe that a selfish habit has no room in Muslim’s ethics. Moreover, they also believe that an absolute freedom should not have a place in their ethics because the economy will damage slowly if it has absolute freedom. According to religious views on business ethics website, ‘’ Jewish faith believes that a person should show reasonable concern for others. In these aspects Judaism is like Christian faith, however, there is a major difference in their beliefs. ’ Jewish thought that wanting wealth is a fault and this fault turn people away from God. Furthermore, they also believe that a person should only have what is necessary to him/her to live a happy life. Judaism has rules that they follow as business ethics. Employers and employees are in different levels, so they will have different rules to follow. According to Religious views on business ethics website, ‘’ One rule that Jews believe, is that an employer should not demand more from a worker than they are capable of doing. ’ The basis for these different religions for theirs business ethics is: wealth and to know the perfect ways to deal with that wealth while staying in the limitation of their laws and rules. The main different in these religions is the way in which to deal with a situation that arise in everyday life and that because every religion has its own policy. The importance of ethics: Obviously, unethical and abnormal performance difficulties are of huge worry to businesses, which need to precede stages to resolve them. Unethical performance leads to unethical workplace environment that’s full of animosity, dishonest competition and inconvenient atmosphere and that’s why ethics are central quantity of each business organization. The ethical culture should be encouragement, solid and optimistic. â€Å"The vanity of the sciences, physical science will not console me for the ignorance of morality in the time of affliction. But the science of ethics will always console me for the ignorance of the physical sciences† (Pascal, 1998). There is a rising acknowledgment that noble ethics can have an optimistic financial influence on the performance of organizations. Lots of statistics provision the basis that ethics, integrity, responsibility and values are essential in the modern place of work. For customer crowds and the general public at outsized, studies has shown that noble ethics is good business. Ethics are essential aspect in the business environment. It goes beyond setting rules and applying them in the workplace to increase the organization’s profit, spread their reputation and competitive advantage to consumers and suppliers. Ethics advance the productivity and efficiency of the labor, honesty, and dependability, positive Work Habits, initiative, humility, positive Attitude, Teamwork, protect human rights of employees and provide a restful atmosphere at work. The importance of ethics in the workplace environment lays down numerous benefits in many different approaches. It can benefit the internal culture and atmosphere to the external firm’s reputation and stature. Several college courses are currently comprehensively applying the training of ethics and for worthy purpose. Young minds will proceeds this info into the workplace and recognize that ethics must be practical there as well as in the private division. A great level of ethics in the business has to be in place as a minimum for the consumers. If anything, it is the consumer that would be reflected the furthermost when it arises to ethical business performs. Customers will rather purchase their needs from a good reputation company that teach and apply good ethics to their employees. Ethics are believed by a lot of individuals as something that is associated to the private sideways of lifetime and not to the business sideways. In countless businesses, consuming ethics is assumed as an undesirable topic. This is since business is frequently about choosing what is the finest for number one, not about what's truly the correct thing to do. Ethics are theoretical to advance our lives and appeal honest spirits. Maybe the purpose ethics is such an uncomfortable topic is for the reason that they are repeatedly unwell applied, if applied at all. Ethics aren't checkered at the gate when arriving the place of work. Ethics obligate each little as much a place in the community as they do the private. What is unethical behavior? We can describe unethical behavior as any act that is not accepted by the principles of behavior recognized by the association. Unethical behavior can take place at any situation with an employee; either it can occur while dealing with another employee, in day to day running of the business or when he is dealing with the company’s resources and finance. Unethical behaviors show damaging in workplace . There are a lot of unethical behaviors in workplace. One of the important causes of unethical behavior is greed. For example, the worker who’s in contact with a client may be willing to give him/her a discount in exchange for a kickback. The essential reason that can lead to unethical behaviors in the workplace is ignoring the firm's policies . The most common unethical behavior is deception in the workplace. Such as, switch prices of products so that items are marked as cheaper than they should be. Also, failure to commit with clients, such as delays in the due date and failure to respond to customers’ calls or emails . You must know how to deal with difficult clients. (Wallace, 2012) Also one of the common unethical behaviors by an employee in a company can be seen in a situation where he uses the company’s computer for his personal use. Unethical behavior is carried out when he uses the computer for either shopping online, checking his personal emails not related to company’s official work, playing games †¦etc. These tasks may lead to delay in the responsibilities that he was assigned to do for the company. In addition â€Å"fraud is a form of unethical practice, which involves falsification of facts or data to obtain unjust rewards Fraud is a crime which attracts harsh sentences to offenders. It also causes huge losses to business organizations. †(Thomson, 2004) Moreover, bribery is considered number one of the most unethical behaviors in the companies. Bribery means offering or accepting anything of value in exchange for changing or influencing the behavior of the recipient of the bribe. Anything of value can use as a bribe, but the money is a classic bribe. It also can be more intangible, and they might be like offers of real estates, valuable objects or a promise to do a specified service in the future. In order to consider it as a bribe, the object of value should be offered with the clear understanding that the person who accepts the bribe will be doing something in return. This distinguishes bribes from gifts given in real good faith, and also discriminate bribery of tipping, a practice in offering gifts in return for good service. For example, a driver being ticketed for speeding or parking in the wrong place might offer a bribe to the police officer to ask him to rip up the ticket. In many areas of the world bribery is considered as a crime, and it can be hardly punished. While in other areas bribery is more socially acceptable, and that can put a heavy burden on those in the lower levels of society, as they cannot afford to bribe officials in the pattern to which they are accustomed. The cultural differences on bribery can lead sometimes to confusions. In some cultures, for example, offering a tip may be considered a bribe, while in others, if you did not give a tip it considered as an offensive. Depending on regional laws, bribery can be punished with fines, imprisonment for a specified period, or compensation. Particularly in countries that are based on high ideals of equality, bribery is usually seen as especially offensive, because it erases the illusion that all the members of society are equal when someone can basically buy favors or someone else's skills with the right bribe. Ethical behavior: Ethical behaviors are essential for employees to deal with clients in a professional way . Employees face ethical and unethical behaviors from clients every day in the workplace. If you want your company or shop gain profit you must train the staff to act ethically in accordance with the company. Working with clients requires specific ethics. For example, ability to offer successful communication to makes them repeat clients. As employee in company you must protect the rights of the client when delivering the service. Such as, rights of privacy. Moreover, the worker should have confidentiality relating to the release of information about clients. Be a good employee for instance, tell the truth always to your clients. Must respect all people and not to differentiate between them, give the clients your best advice and listen to the client because he/she wants to know that you care about his/her problem. Apologize and correct the problem if you had mistaken. Also, show the positive relationship between the employee and the clients. (Knight, 2009) Other example of ethical integrity in the workplace is confidentiality. It is a major illustration of veracity in any place of work. It is also considered as a legal obligation for any employee at any level of organization. All the employers in an organization has got certain information that is to be kept as secret and exposure of these to anybody can lead to fines, penalties and lawful punishments. Confidentiality helps in building trust and motivates genuine deliberation of secrecy of others. The most basic business ethics are honesty, integrity and fairness. Honesty is related to ethical advertising and a reasonable cost for the quality of the products or services. The businesses make profits through ethical business strategies instead of trying to benefit from others through dishonest pricing. Moreover, integrity includes a very wide range of ethics, but it covers issues like social and environmental responsibility. Integrity in business is to be fair and considerate to others but at the same time make profit. Finally, fairness is a very basic concept of ethics, where the company has to treat all the people in commercial dealings either employees or buyers fairly. Fairness in commercial dealings means to be objective and to have an interest in creating a win-win situation for both parties, whether between an employer and employee or a company and a client. Conclusion: To sum up, ethical is essential and very important aspect in the workplace environment. Ethics sets standards on what is right and wrong in an individual's performance and decisions making. There is a rising acknowledgment that noble ethics can have an optimistic financial influence on the performance of organizations. Unethical behaviors provide lack of enthusiasm and negativity in the workplace. Therefore, ethical behaviors are central part to the workplace environment and to employees to work with clients in a professional way.